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Proof that Plum Island experimented with tick-borne diseases 

The question is often asked: Is there any actual proof that the government-run, Plum Island research facility experimented with tick-borne diseases? 

This question is important because many modern hypothesis (or conspiracy theories?) state that Lyme disease itself may have originated from an accidental (or intentional?) leak of bacteria from Plum Island into mainland USA (hence the strong geographical centricity of Lyme disease on the East Coast.  

The below studies were all conducted at the plum island research facility, proving that this facility did in fact experiment with tick-borne diseases. Accordingly, there can be no more questions about if Plum Island did in fact dabble in these infections. Questions still remain: did Plum Island workers actually create Lyme disease as some bio-warfare germ? Does any official know the story, but hide it due to fear of indictment or worse? What type of cover-up's ensued after Lyme disease was "leaked" to mainland USA? How did Lyme disease get to become a world-wide problem? My guess is we'll probably never know the answers to these questions, but in the meantime, at least we know there is proof that the questions aren't being asked in vane. Likely the most convincing reason to believe in the dangerous experiments and leaks that occurred at Plum Island is the fact that Lyme disease cases are clustered around Plum Island according to the CDC. Furthermore, historically, as the disease spread throughout the country, it's pattern of spread originated from the Plum Island region outward toward the Midwest, South, Plains, Southwest, and Western United States. See map:

The Plum Island Studies 
Click the links to see that the studies were in fact conducted at Plum Island

1. African swine fever virus multigene family 360 genes  affect virus
replication and generalization of infection in Ornithodoros  porcinus ticks.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14963141 )
Burrage TG, Lu Z, Neilan JG, Rock DL, Zsak L. 
J  Virol. 2004 Mar;78(5):2445-53.PMID: 14963141  [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE] Related articles
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=14963141 ) _Free article_


(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14963141 )  
 
2. African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is 
required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10482612 )
Kleiboeker SB, Scoles GA, Burrage TG, Sur J. 
J  Virol. 1999 Oct;73(10):8587-98.PMID: 10482612  [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=10482612 ) Free article
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10482612 )  

3. A  conserved African swine fever virus right variable region gene, l11L,
is non-essential for growth in vitro and virulence in domestic  swine.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9603334 )
Kleiboeker SB, Kutish GF, Neilan JG, Lu Z, Zsak L, Rock DL. 
J Gen Virol. 1998 May;79 ( Pt  5):1189-95.PMID: 9603334 [PubMed - indexed
for  MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=9603334 ) Free article  
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9603334 )  
 
4. African swine fever virus infection in the argasid host, Ornithodoros
porcinus porcinus. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9499019 )
Kleiboeker SB, Burrage TG, Scoles GA, Fish D, Rock DL. 
J  Virol. 1998 Mar;72(3):1711-24.PMID: 9499019  [PubMed - indexed for
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=9499019 ) Free article
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9499019 )  
 
5. A  BIR motif containing gene of African swine fever virus, 4CL, is
nonessential for  growth in vitro and viral virulence.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9143281 )
Neilan JG, Lu Z, Kutish GF, Zsak L, Burrage TG, Borca MV,  Carrillo C, Rock
DL. 
Virology.  1997 Apr 14;230(2):252-64.PMID: 9143281 [PubMed -  indexed for
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=9143281 )  
 
6. Attempted transovarial and venereal transmission of African swine  fever
virus by the Iberian soft tick Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) marocanus 
(Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae). (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8057310 )
Endris RG, Hess WR. 
J Med Entomol. 1994  May;31(3):373-81.PMID: 8057310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=8057310 )  
 
7. African swine fever virus infection in the soft tick, Ornithodoros 
(Alectorobius) puertoricensis (Acari: Argasidae).
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1460641 )
Endris RG, Haslett TM, Hess WR. 
J Med Entomol. 1992  Nov;29(6):990-4.PMID: 1460641 [PubMed - indexed for 
MEDLINE]Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=1460641 )  
 
8. African swine fever virus infection in the Iberian soft tick, 
Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) marocanus (Acari: Argasidae).
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1404269 )
Endris RG, Hess WR, Caiado JM. 
J Med Entomol. 1992  Sep;29(5):874-8.PMID: 1404269 [PubMed - indexed for 
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=1404269 )  
 
9. Experimental transmission of African swine fever virus by the soft  tick
Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) marocanus (Acari: Ixodoidea:  Argasidae).
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1495075 )
Endris RG, Hess WR. 
J Med Entomol. 1992  Jul;29(4):652-6.PMID: 1495075 [PubMed - indexed for 
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=1495075 )  
 
10. Experimental transmission of African swine fever virus by the tick 
Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) puertoricensis (Acari:  Argasidae).
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1770521 )
Endris RG, Haslett TM, Hess WR. 
J Med Entomol. 1991  Nov;28(6):854-8.PMID: 1770521 [PubMed - indexed for 
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=1770521 )  
 
11. Laboratory biology of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) puertoricensis  (Acari:
Argasidae). (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2033619 )
Endris RG, Haslett TM, Monahan MJ, Phillips JG. 
J Med Entomol. 1991  Jan;28(1):49-62.PMID: 2033619 [PubMed - indexed for 
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=2033619 )  
 
12. A  mouse lethal dose assay for detection and titration of Cowdria ruminantium (Kwanyanga strain) in goats and ticks.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2705290 )
Endris RG, Haslett TM, Birnie EF, Hess WR. 
Vet Microbiol. 1989  Feb;19(2):151-65.PMID: 2705290 [PubMed - indexed for 
MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=2705290 )  
 
13. Heartwater disease of domestic and wild  ruminants.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3284862 )
Mebus CA , Logan LL. 
J Am Vet Med  Assoc. 1988 Apr 1;192(7):950-2. Review. No abstract
available. PMID: 3284862 [PubMed - indexed for  MEDLINE] Related articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=3284862 )  
 
14. Potential arthropod vectors of African swine fever virus in North America and the Caribbean basin. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3326244 )
Hess WR, Endris RG, Haslett TM, Monahan MJ, McCoy JP. 
Vet Parasitol. 1987  Dec;26(1-2):145-55.PMID: 3326244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related  articles
(
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=link&linkname=pubmed_pubmed&uid=3326244 )



 

 

 


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